Bernie Madoff who is currently doing 150 years of time for constructing one of the largest Ponzi schemes ever discovered with over $50 bn invested used scarcity, premium positioning and referrals as his core marketing strategies. Now FN obviously doesn't support his business model although it does bear an alarming resemblance to some hedge funds today as well as the way that pensions are paid by the state from the tax take of a reducing amount of earners who themselves cannot possibly expect the same level of benefits in their own dotage.
However where FN certainly does give Bernie credit is his brilliant strategy which was all about him staying aloof and using a band of evangelistic idiots to promote his scheme on the basis of letting the next victim into a secret. In a world where information overload is overwhelming us and even the US President tweets at the smallest opportunity you really have to admire a guy who used silence effectively as a way to defraud hundreds of billions over a period of years.
I think we can all learn some lessons (in marketing)!